Innovation & urban livability

A criticism on sustainability notion 

By: Dr. Shadnaz Azizi


We live in an age in which we have to re-invent many of our social industries like health, education, wellbeing, care and transport. 

In my country, informal economy contributes a significant share of GDP. It is made up of a wide range of informal occupations – both ‘resilient old forms’ such as street traders and very small-scale producers as well as ‘emerging new ones’ such as temporary dynamic growing businesses for high tech- modern industries. But the issue is trading with, distributing for and providing services to the formal economy.

This book concentrates on difi cult contemporary problems center on  urban complex adaptive systems including encouraging innovation in dynamic economies, Providing sustainable human growth, and Preserving ecosystems in the pattern of using  sphere of heteronomy to enlarging the sphere of autonomy . This approach goes beyond the anti-collectivism of neo-ecology and the anti-individualism of neo-Marxism according to Herbert Gans term of ‘third paradigm’ for urban sociology. What distinguishes this third paradigm is its emphasis on consumers rather than producers, an emphasis on understanding what people want and on analyzing how best they might achieve it. This sphere of autonomy does not simply limit to passive consumption of goods and services, but includes in it all the activities in which people may choose to engage other than through instrumental—economic necessity. The sphere of individual sovereignty is not based upon a mere desire to consume, nor solely upon relaxation and leisure activities. It is based, more profoundly, upon activities unrelated to any economic goal which are an end in themselves’

In focusing on that sphere of life urban sociology is uniquely equipped to chart a path out of the ‘iron cage’ which Weber believed was encompassing the whole of modern society. 

This contribution opens up the area both conceptually and pragmatically and contributes to finding a way of ‘futuring by doing’.